Fardet A et al. (2017) Critical Reviews in Oncology / Hematology
A strong family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) is known to raise an individual’s risk of developing the disease. To date this population group has been kept under in colonoscopic surveillance but interventions and support about lifestyle choices are not routinely offered.
This systematic review of 31 papers analysed epidemiological studies investigating the associations between dietary intake, family history, and colorectal cancer risk to assess whether lifestyle impacts on disease risk. Higher consumptions of alcohol, red or processed meat, and overweight/obesity (and more largely the exposure to multiple unhealthy behaviours) were found to significantly increase the risk of CRC in those with a familial risk. This review concluded that doctors and their patients need to be better informed about current evidence on nutritional modifiable risk factors for cancer prevention.
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2017.09.001
Kerr J et al. (2017) Lancet Oncol; 18: e457–71.
The second in a series of five this paper reviews existing and emerging evidence on lifestyle factors which are associated with cancer risk. It provides a comprehensive critical analysis of the literature on physical activity, sedentary time, obesity, alcohol consumption and dietary pattern in a range of cancers including breast, colorectal and prostate. Underlying mechanisms of how the lifestyle behaviour impacts on the normal physiology to produce cancerous changes are also discussed.
Gaps in our knowledge and areas for future research conclude a must read for those with an interest in cancer prevention through behaviour change.
Other papers in the series explore preventative therapies for cancer prevention e.g. vaccines, prophylactic surgery and drug therapies; the role of government and regulation and the genomic approaches to cancer prevention which is an emerging field of great interest to cancer prevention researchers.
Available from: http://www.thelancet.com/series/cancer-prevention
Kwiatkowski F et al. (2017) British Journal of Cancer (2017) 116, 1389–1393
Quality of life is often reduced after treatment for breast cancer due to anxiety, depression, and weight gain. In the original ‘PACThe’ trial, 251 participants were randomised to receive a 2 week intervention, shortly after breast cancer chemotherapy completion, at a thermal centre, with ongoing dietary/physical activity advice for 3 years or ongoing dietary/physical activity advice only. The intervention delivered a combination of physiotherapy, physical exercises, nutrition and group support. Quality of life, weight loss in the overweight/obese and weight maintenance if in normal weight range and physical activity were studied.
Quality of life was significantly improved in the intervention group at 1 and 5 years. Significant between group differences were seen in weight management at 6 months and 1 year. At 5 year follow up, weight difference to baseline was - 1.1% in the intervention group (95% CI- 1.1% in the intervention group (95% CI- 1.7; -0.6) vs +0.7% (+0.2; +1.2) in the control group (p<0.001).This intervention appeared to be effective in helping breast cancer survivors improve their quality of life and weight management enabling a faster return to occupational and social activities of living.
Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28427084
AE Lohmann, et al. (2017) Breast Cancer Research and Treatment Volume 164, Issue 2, pages 451-460.
Although the survival of breast cancer (BC) patients has improved in recent years, competing causes of mortality, such as diabetes, are of great relevance in improving lifestyle choices of BC survivors. In a recent review, Lohmann et al studied changes including metabolic factors and physical activity of BC survivors over time, comparing them to age-matched women with no history of BC in order to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes in survivors.
These conditions were significantly more prevalent in BC survivors of lower physical activity compared to control groups, and mortality was higher in BC patients with a BMI >30 compared with normal weight patients. It was concluded that screening for diabetes and metabolic syndrome should be enhanced along with lifestyle changes to decrease prevalence of these conditions and improve outcomes for BC survivors.
Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10549-017-4263-z
The last issue of 2017 packed full of the evidence and examples of good practice underpinning cancer prevention in Scotland. In this issue: Moving More: A workplace challenge, Yorkshire Bike Libraries, ActWELL Study - Full steam ahead, Reflections on 'gender neutral' HPV immunisation, Ongoing Scottish Research and more.